General Description of Infectious Animal Diseases of West Sumatra
Some strategic scholfieldveterinary animal diseases that have appeared/infected in West Sumatra include: Rabies, Septichaemia Epizootica/SE, Newcastle Disease, Jembrana, TBC, Anaplasma/Pyroplasmosis, Surra, Anthrax, Brucellosis, Gumboro, Hog colera and Bird/Avian Flu influenza. Some of these diseases can already be eliminated, such as Brucellosis, Anthrax, Hog Cholera, but routine surveillance and strict supervision of livestock traffic still needs to be carried out.
Rabies is a contagious animal disease that is zoonotic. This disease is very feared after malaria, especially by tourists from abroad. Besides that, rabies is a disease that greatly disturbs the inner peace of society and is closely related to human dignity.
According to history, rabies has existed in West Sumatra since 1928 from the story Salah Asuhan by Abdul Moeis, an author from Minang. In this story the main character is bitten by a dog in the Solok area and then taken for treatment to Bandung. However, according to sources that can be used as a reference, rabies was first discovered in West Sumatra in 1953. After that, instead of disappearing, rabies disease continued to grow. The entire mainland of West Sumatra is an endemic area for rabies, except for the Mentawai Islands which are still free. This is probably driven by the hobby of the people of West Sumatra to hunt pigs with moving places/areas which makes controlling and supervising the traffic of dogs as animals that transmit rabies very difficult.
However, the Government’s efforts to free Rabies from West Sumatra are quite intensive. By carrying out activities such as vaccination, elimination of dogs roaming on public roads, sterilization (ovariohysterectomy) of animals carrying rabies/HPR, outreach through print and electronic media, counseling, forming a Rabies Eradication Coordination Team starting from the Provincial level to the District level, and evaluation of activities through coordination meetings at the provincial and district levels.
2. Septichaemia epizootica (SE, Snoring)
Septichaemia epizootica (SE/Ngorok) was first discovered in West Sumatra in 1884 in Kab. Tanah Datar on buffalo cattle. With the increasing development of buffalo livestock in West Sumatra, it has spread to several districts such as 50 City District, Padang Pariaman, Agam, Sawahlunto Sijunjung, Pesisir Selatan, Solok, South Solok, Pasaman, Tanah Datar and Sawahlunto City. It is estimated that the buffalo population in West Sumatra Province is around 300,000 animals. Epidemiologically, West Sumatra Province is an endemic area for SE disease, but in certain periods, especially when vaccination activities decrease, SE disease turns into an epizootic (epidemic).
An outbreak of Septichaemia epizootica/SE in West Sumatra occurred in 1978 in Sawahlunto Sijunjung District with 12 livestock deaths. Then the SE outbreak reappeared in 1983 in Agam Regency, 50 Cities and Padang Pariaman with the death of 56 livestock. In 1989 another outbreak occurred and generally occurred in all districts and cities where there were buffalo livestock. This disease began in April 1989 in District 2 x 11 Six Lingkung, Padang Pariaman Regency, this disease quickly spread to all districts in West Sumatra Province. At the start of the incident, 337 livestock were killed and 362 were forcibly slaughtered. The number of deaths up to September 1989 was 2,082 buffalo, including forced slaughter.
The spread of cases of Septichaemia epizootica initially came from Padang Pariaman Regency on April 7 1989, 145 slaughtered and 39 dead carcass, Padang City 77 forced slaughtered and 27 carcass killed, Agam Regency 305 forced slaughtered and 180 carcass killed, Tanah Datar District 96 forced slaughtered and 104 dead carcasses, Sawahlunto Sijunjung District 306 forced slaughter and 201 carcass, 50 Cities District 47 forced slaughter and 54 carcass, Pesisir Selatan District 201 forced slaughter and 233 carcass, so a total of 1,205 forced slaughter and 877 carcass, losses are estimated 2 billion rupiah more.